Hot spots (Meyrs 1988) are the regions of extremely high species richness, exceptionally greater species diversity, much higher degree of endemism(concentration of endemic species), most seriously threatened flora and fauna, and rapid modification, degradation, or loss of habitat. Hot spot are selected as priority areas for the insitu conservation biodiversity. In general, an area is considered as a hot spot.
Criteria :
  1. Number of endemic species
  2. The extent of its habitat loss
  3. The degree of threat to its biodiversity
World top biodiversity rich nations include Australia, Brazil, Cameron, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mexico, Panama, Peru, South Africa, Venezuela, Vietnam and Zaire.

 Example of global hot spots and the number of their endemic plant species
Hot spot region
No of endemic plant species
Cape region (South Africa)
Colombia Choko
Central Chile
Eastern Himalaya (India)
Western Ghats (India)
Malayan Penisula
North Borneo
Western Ecuador
25 terrestrial hotspots have been identified all the world. Now the number has been raised to 34. They cover nearly 1.4% of the earth’s land area and harbor nearly 60% of the global biodiversity. Nearly 35% of the known species and about 20% the human population are found in the hot spot regions. 
Biodiversity Hot spot in India

There are four hot spot in India namely 
i) The Western Ghats and 
ii)the eastern Himalayas 
iii) Sundaland 
iv) Indo Burma region. 
These have rich biodiversity, with numerous endemic species. 
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