10 Examples of Biodiversity Hot spots - Biodiversity Hot spots in India


Hot spots (Meyrs 1988) are the regions of extremely high species richness, exceptionally greater species diversity, much higher degree of endemism(concentration of endemic species), most seriously threatened flora and fauna, and rapid modification, degradation, or loss of habitat. Hot spot are selected as priority areas for the insitu conservation biodiversity. In general, an area is considered as a hot spot.
Criteria :
  1. Number of endemic species
  2. The extent of its habitat loss
  3. The degree of threat to its biodiversity
World top biodiversity rich nations include Australia, Brazil, Cameron, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mexico, Panama, Peru, South Africa, Venezuela, Vietnam and Zaire.


 Example of global hot spots and the number of their endemic plant species
Hot spot region
No of endemic plant species
Cape region (South Africa)
6000
Colombia Choko
2500
Central Chile
1450
Eastern Himalaya (India)
3500
Western Ghats (India)
1600
Madagascar
5000
Malayan Penisula
2400
North Borneo
3500
Philippines
4900
Western Ecuador
2500
25 terrestrial hotspots have been identified all the world. Now the number has been raised to 34. They cover nearly 1.4% of the earth’s land area and harbor nearly 60% of the global biodiversity. Nearly 35% of the known species and about 20% the human population are found in the hot spot regions. 
Biodiversity Hot spot in India

There are two hot spot in India namely i) The Western Ghats and ii)the eastern Himalayas. These have rich biodiversity, with numerous endemic species. Other hot spots in the Indian subcontinent are Indo Burma region and  South West Sri Lanka.

Hot spots (Meyrs 1988) are the regions of extremely high species richness, exceptionally greater species diversity, much higher degree of endemism(concentration of endemic species), most seriously threatened flora and fauna, and rapid modification, degradation, or loss of habitat. Hot spot are selected as priority areas for the insitu conservation biodiversity. In general, an area is considered as a hot spot.
Criteria :
  1. Number of endemic species
  2. The extent of its habitat loss
  3. The degree of threat to its biodiversity
World top biodiversity rich nations include Australia, Brazil, Cameron, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mexico, Panama, Peru, South Africa, Venezuela, Vietnam and Zaire.


 Example of global hot spots and the number of their endemic plant species
Hot spot region
No of endemic plant species
Cape region (South Africa)
6000
Colombia Choko
2500
Central Chile
1450
Eastern Himalaya (India)
3500
Western Ghats (India)
1600
Madagascar
5000
Malayan Penisula
2400
North Borneo
3500
Philippines
4900
Western Ecuador
2500
25 terrestrial hotspots have been identified all the world. Now the number has been raised to 34. They cover nearly 1.4% of the earth’s land area and harbor nearly 60% of the global biodiversity. Nearly 35% of the known species and about 20% the human population are found in the hot spot regions. 
Biodiversity Hot spot in India

There are two hot spot in India namely i) The Western Ghats and ii)the eastern Himalayas. These have rich biodiversity, with numerous endemic species. Other hot spots in the Indian subcontinent are Indo Burma region and  South West Sri Lanka.

10 Examples of Artificial Manmade Ecosystems

Artificial ecosystems are man-made ecosystems that are often carefully maintained in constant controlled conditions.
Artificial ecosystems are designed for a specific purpose. Therefore biodiversity will be very low compared to natural ecosystem
10 Examples of Artificial Manmade Ecosystems
Terrestrial Artificial Ecosystems
1.Green housegreenhouse (also called a glasshouse) is a structure with walls and roof made mainly of transparent material, such as glass, in which plants requiring regulated climatic conditions are grown. 
2.Agriculture crop field (Paddy field, wheat field etc)
3.Garden
4.Parks
5.Zoos
6.Terrariums: also called glass garden, wardian case or vivarium, enclosure with 
glass sides, and sometimes a glass top, arranged for keeping plants or terrestrial or semi-terrestrial animals indoors.
7.Managed forestry: A sustainable forest is a forest that is carefully managed so that as trees are felled they are replaced with seedlings that eventually grow into mature trees.
Aquatic Artificial Ecosystems
8.Fish farms
9.Aquarium
10.Dams
11.Hydroponics: It is the method of growing plants without soil, using mineral nutrient solutions. It links aquatic organisms, microorganisms and plants into an artificial ecosystem.
12.Artificial pond in connection with waste treatment plant
13.Artificial wetlands or Constructed wetland: treatment systems that use rooted wetland plants and shallow, flooded or saturated soil to provide wastewater treatment. Constructed wetlands are designed to take advantage of the chemical and biological processes of natural wetlands to remove contaminants from the wastewater. 
Artificial ecosystems are man-made ecosystems that are often carefully maintained in constant controlled conditions.
Artificial ecosystems are designed for a specific purpose. Therefore biodiversity will be very low compared to natural ecosystem
10 Examples of Artificial Manmade Ecosystems
Terrestrial Artificial Ecosystems
1.Green housegreenhouse (also called a glasshouse) is a structure with walls and roof made mainly of transparent material, such as glass, in which plants requiring regulated climatic conditions are grown. 
2.Agriculture crop field (Paddy field, wheat field etc)
3.Garden
4.Parks
5.Zoos
6.Terrariums: also called glass garden, wardian case or vivarium, enclosure with 
glass sides, and sometimes a glass top, arranged for keeping plants or terrestrial or semi-terrestrial animals indoors.
7.Managed forestry: A sustainable forest is a forest that is carefully managed so that as trees are felled they are replaced with seedlings that eventually grow into mature trees.
Aquatic Artificial Ecosystems
8.Fish farms
9.Aquarium
10.Dams
11.Hydroponics: It is the method of growing plants without soil, using mineral nutrient solutions. It links aquatic organisms, microorganisms and plants into an artificial ecosystem.
12.Artificial pond in connection with waste treatment plant
13.Artificial wetlands or Constructed wetland: treatment systems that use rooted wetland plants and shallow, flooded or saturated soil to provide wastewater treatment. Constructed wetlands are designed to take advantage of the chemical and biological processes of natural wetlands to remove contaminants from the wastewater. 

7 Examples of Output Devices

An output device is a part of the computer that displays or present the output  to the user, generated after processing the input data. The output may be in the form of text, image, sound, video etc.
Out put devices can be classified into two
I. Hard copy devices: Devices that provide output on a paper or any other solid surface. This hard copy is portable, can be stored and can be used without a computer.
1.Printer
2.Plotter &
3. Microfiche/Microfilm or Computer Output Microfilm (COM)
II. Soft copy devices: Devices that provide output as visual display, audio, video etc. This soft copy can be accessed only with a computer but can be stored, or even modified and can be shared through e-mail.
4. Monitor
5. Projector
6 Headphone
7. Speaker
7 Examples of Output Devices

1. Printer is an output device, which provide output information on paper.
2. Plotter is a computer printer used for printing vector graphics.
-Used for drawing graphs, maps, computer aided design for buildings and computer aided manufacturing applications etc
3.Computer Output Microfilm (COM) is a system that converts stored data directly to microfilm or microfiche
Cost effective for storing large amount of data for longer periods
-Used in Medical X-rays, storing output in banking and insurance
4. Computer Monitor: most common output device to view the displayed output.
Monitors may be Cathode ray tube (CRT) monitors or Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) monitors. LCD monitors are popular now.
5. Projector: Output device used to project the displayed output onto a large screen
-Used in teaching, conference presentation, training etc
6 and 7. Audio output devices: Headphone and Speaker
Headphone  are a pair of small loudspeakers that are designed to be held in place close to user’s ears. They are also known as earphones.
Speaker: It serves as a voice output device usually used to hear music, speech etc
An output device is a part of the computer that displays or present the output  to the user, generated after processing the input data. The output may be in the form of text, image, sound, video etc.
Out put devices can be classified into two
I. Hard copy devices: Devices that provide output on a paper or any other solid surface. This hard copy is portable, can be stored and can be used without a computer.
1.Printer
2.Plotter &
3. Microfiche/Microfilm or Computer Output Microfilm (COM)
II. Soft copy devices: Devices that provide output as visual display, audio, video etc. This soft copy can be accessed only with a computer but can be stored, or even modified and can be shared through e-mail.
4. Monitor
5. Projector
6 Headphone
7. Speaker
7 Examples of Output Devices

1. Printer is an output device, which provide output information on paper.
2. Plotter is a computer printer used for printing vector graphics.
-Used for drawing graphs, maps, computer aided design for buildings and computer aided manufacturing applications etc
3.Computer Output Microfilm (COM) is a system that converts stored data directly to microfilm or microfiche
Cost effective for storing large amount of data for longer periods
-Used in Medical X-rays, storing output in banking and insurance
4. Computer Monitor: most common output device to view the displayed output.
Monitors may be Cathode ray tube (CRT) monitors or Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) monitors. LCD monitors are popular now.
5. Projector: Output device used to project the displayed output onto a large screen
-Used in teaching, conference presentation, training etc
6 and 7. Audio output devices: Headphone and Speaker
Headphone  are a pair of small loudspeakers that are designed to be held in place close to user’s ears. They are also known as earphones.
Speaker: It serves as a voice output device usually used to hear music, speech etc

10 Examples of Bacterial Diseases

The bacteria are generally looked upon as enemies of man, for many of them are responsible for spoiling of our food and drink, and causing diseases like tuberculosis, tetanus, diphtheria and and cholera. They are of prime importance of mankind since they exert both deleterious and beneficial effects upon human life.
10 Examples of Bacterial Diseases
Example of Bacterial Diseases:
  1. Tuberculosis- Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  2. Chloera - Vibrio chloerae
  3. Anthrax- Bacillus anthracis
  4. Throat infection- Streptococcus
  5. Food poison- Salmonella, Staphlo coccus
  6.  Botulism- Clostridium botulinum
  7. Pertussis-Bordetella pertussis
  8. Plague- Yersinia pestis
  9. Rat fever- Leptospira icterohamorrhagiae
  10. Gonorrhea-Nisseria gonorrhoeae
  11. Syphilis- Treponema pallidum
  12. Leprosy-Mycobacterium leprae
  13. Tatanus -Clostridium tetani
  14. Diptheria- Corynebacterium diphtheriae
  15. Typhoid-Salmonella typhi





The bacteria are generally looked upon as enemies of man, for many of them are responsible for spoiling of our food and drink, and causing diseases like tuberculosis, tetanus, diphtheria and and cholera. They are of prime importance of mankind since they exert both deleterious and beneficial effects upon human life.
10 Examples of Bacterial Diseases
Example of Bacterial Diseases:
  1. Tuberculosis- Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  2. Chloera - Vibrio chloerae
  3. Anthrax- Bacillus anthracis
  4. Throat infection- Streptococcus
  5. Food poison- Salmonella, Staphlo coccus
  6.  Botulism- Clostridium botulinum
  7. Pertussis-Bordetella pertussis
  8. Plague- Yersinia pestis
  9. Rat fever- Leptospira icterohamorrhagiae
  10. Gonorrhea-Nisseria gonorrhoeae
  11. Syphilis- Treponema pallidum
  12. Leprosy-Mycobacterium leprae
  13. Tatanus -Clostridium tetani
  14. Diptheria- Corynebacterium diphtheriae
  15. Typhoid-Salmonella typhi





Example of Dioecious Plants

The term is commonly used to refer the reproductive behaviour of plants. Around 90% of the plant species are bisexual or called as `perfect' flowers; these hermaphrodites are both staminate (with stamens or male parts) and pistillate (with one or more carpels; female parts) on the same flower.
Rest 10% of plants have evolved unisexuality as spatial separation of flowers. They can be Monoecious and Dioecious. Monoecious ("Mono" =one - and the term "monoecious" is literally "one house"), plants have male flowers and female flowers in separate structures on the same plant. In dioecious plants (“two house”), male and female flowers are present on separate plant.
Example of Dioecious Plants
  1. Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis)
  2. Cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus)
  3. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera)
  4.  Spinach (Spinacia oleracea)
  5. Wilow (Salix spp)
  6. Yam (Dioscorea spp)
  7. Hemp (Cannabis sativa)
  8. Hop (Humulus lupulus)
  9. Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa)
  10. Mistletoe (Viscum album)
  11. Papaya (Carica papaya)
  12. Yam(Dioscorea sp)
  13. Poplar (Populus species)
The term is commonly used to refer the reproductive behaviour of plants. Around 90% of the plant species are bisexual or called as `perfect' flowers; these hermaphrodites are both staminate (with stamens or male parts) and pistillate (with one or more carpels; female parts) on the same flower.
Rest 10% of plants have evolved unisexuality as spatial separation of flowers. They can be Monoecious and Dioecious. Monoecious ("Mono" =one - and the term "monoecious" is literally "one house"), plants have male flowers and female flowers in separate structures on the same plant. In dioecious plants (“two house”), male and female flowers are present on separate plant.
Example of Dioecious Plants
  1. Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis)
  2. Cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus)
  3. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera)
  4.  Spinach (Spinacia oleracea)
  5. Wilow (Salix spp)
  6. Yam (Dioscorea spp)
  7. Hemp (Cannabis sativa)
  8. Hop (Humulus lupulus)
  9. Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa)
  10. Mistletoe (Viscum album)
  11. Papaya (Carica papaya)
  12. Yam(Dioscorea sp)
  13. Poplar (Populus species)

Example of Monoecious Plants


The term is commonly used to refer the reproductive behaviour of plants. Around 90% of the plant species are bisexual or called as `perfect' flowers; these hermaphrodites are both staminate (with stamens or male parts) and pistillate (with one or more carpels; female parts) on the same flower.
Rest 10% of plants have evolved unisexuality as spatial separation of flowers. They can be Monoecious and Dioecious. Monoecious ("Mono" =one - and the term "monoecious" is literally "one house"), plants have male flowers and female flowers in separate structures on the same plant. In dioecious plants (“two house”), male and female flowers are present on separate plant.

Example of Monoecious Plant
Example of Monoecious Plant
  1. Castor bean (Ricinus  communis)
  2. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus)
  3. Fig (Ficus carica)
  4. Hazelnut (Corylus spp)
  5. Maize (Zea mays)
  6. Melon (Cucumis melo)
  7. Oilpalm (Elaeis guinensis)
  8. Walnut (Juglans regia)



The term is commonly used to refer the reproductive behaviour of plants. Around 90% of the plant species are bisexual or called as `perfect' flowers; these hermaphrodites are both staminate (with stamens or male parts) and pistillate (with one or more carpels; female parts) on the same flower.
Rest 10% of plants have evolved unisexuality as spatial separation of flowers. They can be Monoecious and Dioecious. Monoecious ("Mono" =one - and the term "monoecious" is literally "one house"), plants have male flowers and female flowers in separate structures on the same plant. In dioecious plants (“two house”), male and female flowers are present on separate plant.

Example of Monoecious Plant
Example of Monoecious Plant
  1. Castor bean (Ricinus  communis)
  2. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus)
  3. Fig (Ficus carica)
  4. Hazelnut (Corylus spp)
  5. Maize (Zea mays)
  6. Melon (Cucumis melo)
  7. Oilpalm (Elaeis guinensis)
  8. Walnut (Juglans regia)


10 Examples of Viral diseases of Plants


Numerous disease like mosaic, yellows, vein clearing, malformation etc. occurs in plants due to viruses. In plants transmission of viruses mainly takes place by soil, seeds, pollen grains, roots, agricultural tools, vegetative propagation, weeds and juice sucking insects etc. An agent which transmits virus is know as ‘vector’.
10 Examples of Viral diseases of Plants
image credit
  1. Tobacco mosaic disease
  2. Tobacco necrosis
  3. Peach yellow disease
  4. Vein clearing disease
  5. Swollen shoot of cocoa
  6. Leaf roll of potato
  7.  Leaf curl of papaya
  8. Malformation in mango
  9.  Spike disease of sandal wood
  10. Bunchy top of banana

Common symptoms of viral diseases in plants
  • Mosaics
  • Leaf rolling and curling
  • Necrosis
  • Pitting
  • Local lesions
  • Local lesions
  • Dwarfing and stunted growth.


Numerous disease like mosaic, yellows, vein clearing, malformation etc. occurs in plants due to viruses. In plants transmission of viruses mainly takes place by soil, seeds, pollen grains, roots, agricultural tools, vegetative propagation, weeds and juice sucking insects etc. An agent which transmits virus is know as ‘vector’.
10 Examples of Viral diseases of Plants
image credit
  1. Tobacco mosaic disease
  2. Tobacco necrosis
  3. Peach yellow disease
  4. Vein clearing disease
  5. Swollen shoot of cocoa
  6. Leaf roll of potato
  7.  Leaf curl of papaya
  8. Malformation in mango
  9.  Spike disease of sandal wood
  10. Bunchy top of banana

Common symptoms of viral diseases in plants
  • Mosaics
  • Leaf rolling and curling
  • Necrosis
  • Pitting
  • Local lesions
  • Local lesions
  • Dwarfing and stunted growth.

Example of Rabi crops, Kharif crops and Zaid Crops

1. Rabi crop or Winter crop 
Rabi crops  refers to agricultural crops sown in winter and harvested in the summer season. The term is derived from the Arabic word for "spring", which is used in the Indian subcontinent. The Rabi crop is the spring harvest (also known as the "winter crop") in Indian subcontinent. The Rabi Season starts in the middle of October when the south-west monsoon retreats and the north-east Monsoon begins. Seeds are sown in October and crops are harvested in March and April. Generally, crops which require less water are grown during the rabi season. This season is called as cold weather period. January & February months are the cold months in the most parts of the country. Temperature distribution over India

2. Kharif crop or Summer Crop
Kharif crops are usually sown with the beginning of the first rains in July, during the south-west monsoon season. India the kharif season varies by crop and state, with Kharif starting at the earliest in May and ending at the latest in January, but is popularly considered to start in June and to end in October. Crops which require large quantities of water are cultivated during the Kharif season.
This season is also called as hot weather period / pre monsoon season. This period is characterized by high temperature. The temperature is higher in north compared south. March to May month is the summer season. The weather gets hotter steadily from the beginning of March. April & May are the hottest months of the year. The average temperature is 30-40 °C. The rainfall receives during this period are mainly useful for preparatory cultivation.
Example of Rabi crops, Kharif crops and Zaid Crops
Example of Kharif crops,  Rabi crops and Zaid crops
3. Zaid crop: 
There are certain crops which are grown throughout the year in all parts of the country under artificial irrigation, they are called zaid crops.
1. Rabi crop or Winter crop 
Rabi crops  refers to agricultural crops sown in winter and harvested in the summer season. The term is derived from the Arabic word for "spring", which is used in the Indian subcontinent. The Rabi crop is the spring harvest (also known as the "winter crop") in Indian subcontinent. The Rabi Season starts in the middle of October when the south-west monsoon retreats and the north-east Monsoon begins. Seeds are sown in October and crops are harvested in March and April. Generally, crops which require less water are grown during the rabi season. This season is called as cold weather period. January & February months are the cold months in the most parts of the country. Temperature distribution over India

2. Kharif crop or Summer Crop
Kharif crops are usually sown with the beginning of the first rains in July, during the south-west monsoon season. India the kharif season varies by crop and state, with Kharif starting at the earliest in May and ending at the latest in January, but is popularly considered to start in June and to end in October. Crops which require large quantities of water are cultivated during the Kharif season.
This season is also called as hot weather period / pre monsoon season. This period is characterized by high temperature. The temperature is higher in north compared south. March to May month is the summer season. The weather gets hotter steadily from the beginning of March. April & May are the hottest months of the year. The average temperature is 30-40 °C. The rainfall receives during this period are mainly useful for preparatory cultivation.
Example of Rabi crops, Kharif crops and Zaid Crops
Example of Kharif crops,  Rabi crops and Zaid crops
3. Zaid crop: 
There are certain crops which are grown throughout the year in all parts of the country under artificial irrigation, they are called zaid crops.

10 Examples of Bio fertilizers

Definition of Bio fertilizer: a bio fertilizer is an organic product, which contains different types of micro organism in the concentrated form, they are able to fixation of atmospheric nitrogen, symbiotically or non symbiotically. 
Fertilizers of biological origin are called bio fertilizer. Bio fertilizers s a 100% natural and organic fertilizer that help to provide and keep in the soil all the nutrients and microorganisms required for the benefits of the plants. Most of the bio fertilizers add  nitrogen to the soil. 
Bio fertilizers are of three types: Nitrogen fixing bacteria, nitrogen fixing cyano bacteria (blue green algae) and mycorrhiza. 
Example of Bio fertilizer
1. Azolla is a floating fern which harbours a blue green algae in its leaf cavities. Azolla supplies nitrogen, increases physico chemical properties  of soil such as soil structure, texture, water holding capacity, cation exchange capacity and pH by providing several nutrients and sufficient organic matter.

2. Azospirillum are nitrogen fixing bacteria that lives in a symbiotic relationship in the root cortex of several tropical crops.

3. Azotobacter are free living nitrogen fixing bacteria and are know  to produce several plant growth promoting substances.  Azotobacter and Azosprillium, besides supplying nitrogen to soil, secrete antibiotics which act as pesticides. 

4. Rhizobium bacteria, basically form root nodules in leguminous plants and fix atmospheric nitrogen in a symbiotic association. 

5. Sesbania: It is a green manure plant which  plant which forms both root and stem nodules in association with Rhozobium and thereby fixes more atmospheric nitrogen. 

6. Phosphate Solubilizing Microbes / Bacteria: They soluble the insoluble phosphorus. Bacteria like Pseudomonas striata and Bacillus megaterium are also  important phosphorus solubilising soil microorganisms. Many fungi like Aspergillus and Pencillium are potential solubilizers of bound phosphates.

7. Nitrogen Fixing bacteria:  Free living nitrogen fixing bacteria and symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria

8. Symbiotic nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria: Azolla - Anabaena association is of great importance to agriculture. 

9. Nitrogen fixing cyanobacteia form symbiotic association with several plants, e.g., Cycad roots, Liverworts, Lichens, Azolla (fern)

10.  VAM (Vasicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae) : The VAM act as a  symbiotic association between agriculture plant root and fungal mycelia. VAM increase the uptake of phosphorus and even uptake of phosphorus and even uptake of Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe.
Definition of Bio fertilizer: a bio fertilizer is an organic product, which contains different types of micro organism in the concentrated form, they are able to fixation of atmospheric nitrogen, symbiotically or non symbiotically. 
Fertilizers of biological origin are called bio fertilizer. Bio fertilizers s a 100% natural and organic fertilizer that help to provide and keep in the soil all the nutrients and microorganisms required for the benefits of the plants. Most of the bio fertilizers add  nitrogen to the soil. 
Bio fertilizers are of three types: Nitrogen fixing bacteria, nitrogen fixing cyano bacteria (blue green algae) and mycorrhiza. 
Example of Bio fertilizer
1. Azolla is a floating fern which harbours a blue green algae in its leaf cavities. Azolla supplies nitrogen, increases physico chemical properties  of soil such as soil structure, texture, water holding capacity, cation exchange capacity and pH by providing several nutrients and sufficient organic matter.

2. Azospirillum are nitrogen fixing bacteria that lives in a symbiotic relationship in the root cortex of several tropical crops.

3. Azotobacter are free living nitrogen fixing bacteria and are know  to produce several plant growth promoting substances.  Azotobacter and Azosprillium, besides supplying nitrogen to soil, secrete antibiotics which act as pesticides. 

4. Rhizobium bacteria, basically form root nodules in leguminous plants and fix atmospheric nitrogen in a symbiotic association. 

5. Sesbania: It is a green manure plant which  plant which forms both root and stem nodules in association with Rhozobium and thereby fixes more atmospheric nitrogen. 

6. Phosphate Solubilizing Microbes / Bacteria: They soluble the insoluble phosphorus. Bacteria like Pseudomonas striata and Bacillus megaterium are also  important phosphorus solubilising soil microorganisms. Many fungi like Aspergillus and Pencillium are potential solubilizers of bound phosphates.

7. Nitrogen Fixing bacteria:  Free living nitrogen fixing bacteria and symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria

8. Symbiotic nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria: Azolla - Anabaena association is of great importance to agriculture. 

9. Nitrogen fixing cyanobacteia form symbiotic association with several plants, e.g., Cycad roots, Liverworts, Lichens, Azolla (fern)

10.  VAM (Vasicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae) : The VAM act as a  symbiotic association between agriculture plant root and fungal mycelia. VAM increase the uptake of phosphorus and even uptake of phosphorus and even uptake of Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe.

10 Examples of False fishes

Example of False fishes
Jelly fish
  1. Jelly fish: Aurelia (Coelenterate)
  2. Shell fish: Oyster and other molluscs
  3. Shell fish: Lobster and other custaeans
  4. Razor fish: Used both for a true fish Xyrichythyes species as well as as Solen, a bivalve.
  5. Silver fish: Lepisma (an insect)
  6. Whale fish: Whale(aquatic mammal)
  7. Cuttle fish: Sepia (a mollusc)
  8. Devil fish: Octopus(a mollusc)
  9. Hag fish: Myxine (Cyclostomate)
  10. Star fish: Asterias (Echinoderm)

Example of False fishes
Jelly fish
  1. Jelly fish: Aurelia (Coelenterate)
  2. Shell fish: Oyster and other molluscs
  3. Shell fish: Lobster and other custaeans
  4. Razor fish: Used both for a true fish Xyrichythyes species as well as as Solen, a bivalve.
  5. Silver fish: Lepisma (an insect)
  6. Whale fish: Whale(aquatic mammal)
  7. Cuttle fish: Sepia (a mollusc)
  8. Devil fish: Octopus(a mollusc)
  9. Hag fish: Myxine (Cyclostomate)
  10. Star fish: Asterias (Echinoderm)

25 Examples of Question Tags

25 examples of question tag
Taq questions are questions attached to the end of a statement in order to draw attention to it or give it added force.
25 Examples of Question Tags
  1. Akhil is an intelligent boy, isn’t he?
  2. Susha and Suja are working hard, aren’t they?
  3. Few people came forward, did they?
  4. Little money was collected, was it?
  5. Barking dogs seldom bite, do they?
  6. He could hardly stand erect, could he?
  7. They rarely go to films, do they?
  8. Stand up, will you?
  9. Don’t make noise, will you?
  10. Have another cup of coffee, won’t you?
  11. Let’s sing a song, shall we?
  12. Use your common sense, can’t you?
  13. No body knows the answer, do they?
  14. None of the students studied, did they?
  15. Speak loudly, will you?
  16. All the students were listening, weren’t  they?
  17. He dare not go, dare he?
  18. He dares to go, doesn’t he?
  19. Let us go for a walk, shall we?
  20. I can help you,  can’t I?
  21. Little progress has been made, has it?
  22. None of the workmen arrived in time, did they?
  23. Please pass me the newspaper, will you?
  24. Few people knew the answer, did they?
  25. They will help us, won’t they?
25 examples of question tag
Taq questions are questions attached to the end of a statement in order to draw attention to it or give it added force.
25 Examples of Question Tags
  1. Akhil is an intelligent boy, isn’t he?
  2. Susha and Suja are working hard, aren’t they?
  3. Few people came forward, did they?
  4. Little money was collected, was it?
  5. Barking dogs seldom bite, do they?
  6. He could hardly stand erect, could he?
  7. They rarely go to films, do they?
  8. Stand up, will you?
  9. Don’t make noise, will you?
  10. Have another cup of coffee, won’t you?
  11. Let’s sing a song, shall we?
  12. Use your common sense, can’t you?
  13. No body knows the answer, do they?
  14. None of the students studied, did they?
  15. Speak loudly, will you?
  16. All the students were listening, weren’t  they?
  17. He dare not go, dare he?
  18. He dares to go, doesn’t he?
  19. Let us go for a walk, shall we?
  20. I can help you,  can’t I?
  21. Little progress has been made, has it?
  22. None of the workmen arrived in time, did they?
  23. Please pass me the newspaper, will you?
  24. Few people knew the answer, did they?
  25. They will help us, won’t they?

Example of Elements, Compounds and Mixtures

Based on the chemical composition of the substance, matter may be classified as elements, compounds or mixtures.
Example of Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
a) Elements: These are substances which cannot be reduced to simpler materials either by physical or chemical changes.  At present 118 different elements are known. About 92% of the elements can be extracted from natural sources but the rest are prepared from artificially by means of nuclear processes. Elements are represented by Symbols.
Example of elements: Copper (Cu), Oxygen (O), Hydrogen (H), helium (He), Lithium (Li)
b) Compound: A compound is a substance which contains two or more elements chemically combined together. Water is made up of hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Carbon dioxide is up of carbon and oxygen. Unlike elements , compounds can be decomposed, or broken down by simple chemical reactions. 
Water example of compound
Example of Compounds: Water (H2O), Salt (NaCl), Ammonia (NH3), Methane(CH4), Benzene (C6H6). Sugar(CHO)n, Sulphuric acid (H2SO4), Marble, Saltpetre
c)Mixture: When two or more substances are combined by physical methods in any proportion and no new substances is formed then it is called a mixture. 
Mixture is of two types: Homogeneous and heterogeneous.  Homogeneous mixtures have the same composition throughout. Heterogeneous mixtures have different composition in different parts of the mixture.
Sand example of mixture
Example of Mixtures: Sand, Air is mixture of gases, Sugar and water, Combination of sulphur, iron fillings. The constituents of a mixture can be separated by ordinary physical methods.
Based on the chemical composition of the substance, matter may be classified as elements, compounds or mixtures.
Example of Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
a) Elements: These are substances which cannot be reduced to simpler materials either by physical or chemical changes.  At present 118 different elements are known. About 92% of the elements can be extracted from natural sources but the rest are prepared from artificially by means of nuclear processes. Elements are represented by Symbols.
Example of elements: Copper (Cu), Oxygen (O), Hydrogen (H), helium (He), Lithium (Li)
b) Compound: A compound is a substance which contains two or more elements chemically combined together. Water is made up of hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Carbon dioxide is up of carbon and oxygen. Unlike elements , compounds can be decomposed, or broken down by simple chemical reactions. 
Water example of compound
Example of Compounds: Water (H2O), Salt (NaCl), Ammonia (NH3), Methane(CH4), Benzene (C6H6). Sugar(CHO)n, Sulphuric acid (H2SO4), Marble, Saltpetre
c)Mixture: When two or more substances are combined by physical methods in any proportion and no new substances is formed then it is called a mixture. 
Mixture is of two types: Homogeneous and heterogeneous.  Homogeneous mixtures have the same composition throughout. Heterogeneous mixtures have different composition in different parts of the mixture.
Sand example of mixture
Example of Mixtures: Sand, Air is mixture of gases, Sugar and water, Combination of sulphur, iron fillings. The constituents of a mixture can be separated by ordinary physical methods.

Example of Solids - Crystalline solids and Amorphous solids

Any substances that consists of closely packed particles (atoms, molecules or ions) is called solids. The  solids having characteristic geometrical forms are known as the crystalline solids.  These solids posses a regular and repeated arrangement of particles. 
Example of Solids- Crystalline solids and Amorphous solids
Solids are of two types: Crystalline and amorphous. The main feature of the crystalline solids is their long range order and solids posses short range of order is known as amorphous solids. Amorphous solids are known as glassy solids. (Crystalline vs Amorphous Solids)

Example of Crystalline solids: Rock salt, Calcite and quartz

Example of Amorphous solids: Glass and sugar candy
Any substances that consists of closely packed particles (atoms, molecules or ions) is called solids. The  solids having characteristic geometrical forms are known as the crystalline solids.  These solids posses a regular and repeated arrangement of particles. 
Example of Solids- Crystalline solids and Amorphous solids
Solids are of two types: Crystalline and amorphous. The main feature of the crystalline solids is their long range order and solids posses short range of order is known as amorphous solids. Amorphous solids are known as glassy solids. (Crystalline vs Amorphous Solids)

Example of Crystalline solids: Rock salt, Calcite and quartz

Example of Amorphous solids: Glass and sugar candy

25 Examples of Proverbs

Proverb represent the general wisdom  of mankind. They are handed down from generation to generation. They deal with basic truths which every body can understand.
Examples of Proverbs
  1. Union is strength.Union is strength -  example of proverb
  2. A rolling stone gathers no moss.
  3. A stitch in time saves nine.
  4. Honesty is the best policy.
  5. Where there is a will. There is a way.
  6. Necessity is the other of invention.
  7. Money is the root of all evil.
  8. The tree is known by its fruit.
  9. East or west, home is the best.
  10. Slow and steady wins the race.
  11. Water water every where not a drops to drink
  12. Pen is mightier than sword.
    Pen is mightier than sword - proverb examples
  13. Rome was not built in a day.
  14. Duty is beauty. The dutiful are beautiful.
  15. A bad workman quarrels with his tools.
  16. Think before you leap.
  17. Prevention is better than cure.
  18. Knowledge is power.
  19. Man proposes, God disposes.
  20. Health is wealth.
  21. In the country of the blind the one eyed man is the king.
  22. Giving is better than borrowing.
  23. As you saw, so you reap
  24. Rain does not stay in the sky25 Examples of Proverbs25. Patience is a virtue for the weak and the strong.
Proverb represent the general wisdom  of mankind. They are handed down from generation to generation. They deal with basic truths which every body can understand.
Examples of Proverbs
  1. Union is strength.Union is strength -  example of proverb
  2. A rolling stone gathers no moss.
  3. A stitch in time saves nine.
  4. Honesty is the best policy.
  5. Where there is a will. There is a way.
  6. Necessity is the other of invention.
  7. Money is the root of all evil.
  8. The tree is known by its fruit.
  9. East or west, home is the best.
  10. Slow and steady wins the race.
  11. Water water every where not a drops to drink
  12. Pen is mightier than sword.
    Pen is mightier than sword - proverb examples
  13. Rome was not built in a day.
  14. Duty is beauty. The dutiful are beautiful.
  15. A bad workman quarrels with his tools.
  16. Think before you leap.
  17. Prevention is better than cure.
  18. Knowledge is power.
  19. Man proposes, God disposes.
  20. Health is wealth.
  21. In the country of the blind the one eyed man is the king.
  22. Giving is better than borrowing.
  23. As you saw, so you reap
  24. Rain does not stay in the sky25 Examples of Proverbs25. Patience is a virtue for the weak and the strong.

10 Examples of Direct and Indirect speech - Easy English Lessons

10 Example of Direct and Indirect speech - Easy English Lessons
i) John said, ‘I want to become a lawyer.’(Direct Speech)
John said that he wanted to become a lawyer. (Indirect speech)

ii) The girl said, ‘I like sweets.’ (Direct Speech)
The girl said that she liked sweets. (Indirect speech)

iii) She said, ‘ I am buying a new car.’ (Direct Speech)
She said that she was buying a new car. . (Indirect speech)

iv) He said, ‘I have read this story.’ (Direct Speech)
He said that he had read that story. (Indirect speech)

v) She said, ‘I bought a house in London’. (Direct Speech)
She said she had bought a house in London. (Indirect speech)

vi) He Said, ‘Aamir Khan was swimming in the pool’. (Direct Speech)
He said that Aamir Khan had been swimming in the pool. (Indirect speech)

vii) Teacher said to the girls, ‘If you do your best you will surely pass.' (Direct Speech)
The teacher told the girls that if they did their best they would surely pass. (Indirect speech)

viii)She said to me, ‘You alone can save her.’ (Direct Speech)
She told me that I alone could save her. (Indirect speech)

ix) Jerry said, ‘Mother, I am hungry.’ (Direct Speech)
Jerry told his mother that he was hungry. (Indirect speech)

x) He said, ‘There was a big fire here last night.’ (Direct Speech)
He said that there had been a big fire there the previous night. (Indirect speech)
10 Example of Direct and Indirect speech - Easy English Lessons
i) John said, ‘I want to become a lawyer.’(Direct Speech)
John said that he wanted to become a lawyer. (Indirect speech)

ii) The girl said, ‘I like sweets.’ (Direct Speech)
The girl said that she liked sweets. (Indirect speech)

iii) She said, ‘ I am buying a new car.’ (Direct Speech)
She said that she was buying a new car. . (Indirect speech)

iv) He said, ‘I have read this story.’ (Direct Speech)
He said that he had read that story. (Indirect speech)

v) She said, ‘I bought a house in London’. (Direct Speech)
She said she had bought a house in London. (Indirect speech)

vi) He Said, ‘Aamir Khan was swimming in the pool’. (Direct Speech)
He said that Aamir Khan had been swimming in the pool. (Indirect speech)

vii) Teacher said to the girls, ‘If you do your best you will surely pass.' (Direct Speech)
The teacher told the girls that if they did their best they would surely pass. (Indirect speech)

viii)She said to me, ‘You alone can save her.’ (Direct Speech)
She told me that I alone could save her. (Indirect speech)

ix) Jerry said, ‘Mother, I am hungry.’ (Direct Speech)
Jerry told his mother that he was hungry. (Indirect speech)

x) He said, ‘There was a big fire here last night.’ (Direct Speech)
He said that there had been a big fire there the previous night. (Indirect speech)

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