1. Rabi crop or Winter crop
Rabi crops refers to agricultural crops sown in winter and harvested in the summer season. The term is derived from the Arabic word for "spring", which is used in the Indian subcontinent. The Rabi crop is the spring harvest (also known as the "winter crop") in Indian subcontinent. The Rabi Season starts in the middle of October when the south-west monsoon retreats and the north-east Monsoon begins. Seeds are sown in October and crops are harvested in March and April. Generally, crops which require less water are grown during the rabi season. This season is called as cold weather period. January & February months are the cold months in the most parts of the country. Temperature distribution over India
2. Kharif crop or Summer Crop
Kharif crops are usually sown with the beginning of the first rains in July, during the south-west monsoon season. India the kharif season varies by crop and state, with Kharif starting at the earliest in May and ending at the latest in January, but is popularly considered to start in June and to end in October. Crops which require large quantities of water are cultivated during the Kharif season.
This season is also called as hot weather period / pre monsoon season. This period is characterized by high temperature. The temperature is higher in north compared south. March to May month is the summer season. The weather gets hotter steadily from the beginning of March. April & May are the hottest months of the year. The average temperature is 30-40 °C. The rainfall receives during this period are mainly useful for preparatory cultivation.