Many cancers are associated with the abnormal production of enzymes, proteins and hormones, which can be measured in plasma or serum, these are called tumor markers.
Tumor Markers Example
Example of Tumor Markers
Associated Cancer
Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP)
Calcitonis (CT)
Thyroid (Medullary carcinoma)
Human chronin gonadotropin
Germ cells, Trophoblast
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
Colon, Lung, Pancreas, Breast
Alfa fetoprotein (AFP)
Liver, Germ cells
Applications of Tumor markers
  • Detection: Screeing in asymptomatic persons.
  • Diagnosis: Differentiating malignant from benign conditions.
  • Monitoring: Predicting effect of therapy and detecting recurrent cancer.
  • Classification: Choosing therapy and predicting tumour behavior (prognosis).
  • Stagging: Defining extent of diseases.
  • Localization: Nuclear scanning of injected radioactive antibodies.
  • Therapy: Cytotoxic agents directed to marker containing cells.
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