Example of Elements, Compounds and Mixtures

Based on the chemical composition of the substance, matter may be classified as elements, compounds or mixtures.
Example of Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
a) Elements: These are substances which cannot be reduced to simpler materials either by physical or chemical changes.  At present 118 different elements are known. About 92% of the elements can be extracted from natural sources but the rest are prepared from artificially by means of nuclear processes. Elements are represented by Symbols.
Example of elements: Copper (Cu), Oxygen (O), Hydrogen (H), helium (He), Lithium (Li)
b) Compound: A compound is a substance which contains two or more elements chemically combined together. Water is made up of hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Carbon dioxide is up of carbon and oxygen. Unlike elements , compounds can be decomposed, or broken down by simple chemical reactions. 
Water example of compound
Example of Compounds: Water (H2O), Salt (NaCl), Ammonia (NH3), Methane(CH4), Benzene (C6H6). Sugar(CHO)n, Sulphuric acid (H2SO4), Marble, Saltpetre
c)Mixture: When two or more substances are combined by physical methods in any proportion and no new substances is formed then it is called a mixture. 
Mixture is of two types: Homogeneous and heterogeneous.  Homogeneous mixtures have the same composition throughout. Heterogeneous mixtures have different composition in different parts of the mixture.
Sand example of mixture
Example of Mixtures: Sand, Air is mixture of gases, Sugar and water, Combination of sulphur, iron fillings. The constituents of a mixture can be separated by ordinary physical methods.
Based on the chemical composition of the substance, matter may be classified as elements, compounds or mixtures.
Example of Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
a) Elements: These are substances which cannot be reduced to simpler materials either by physical or chemical changes.  At present 118 different elements are known. About 92% of the elements can be extracted from natural sources but the rest are prepared from artificially by means of nuclear processes. Elements are represented by Symbols.
Example of elements: Copper (Cu), Oxygen (O), Hydrogen (H), helium (He), Lithium (Li)
b) Compound: A compound is a substance which contains two or more elements chemically combined together. Water is made up of hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Carbon dioxide is up of carbon and oxygen. Unlike elements , compounds can be decomposed, or broken down by simple chemical reactions. 
Water example of compound
Example of Compounds: Water (H2O), Salt (NaCl), Ammonia (NH3), Methane(CH4), Benzene (C6H6). Sugar(CHO)n, Sulphuric acid (H2SO4), Marble, Saltpetre
c)Mixture: When two or more substances are combined by physical methods in any proportion and no new substances is formed then it is called a mixture. 
Mixture is of two types: Homogeneous and heterogeneous.  Homogeneous mixtures have the same composition throughout. Heterogeneous mixtures have different composition in different parts of the mixture.
Sand example of mixture
Example of Mixtures: Sand, Air is mixture of gases, Sugar and water, Combination of sulphur, iron fillings. The constituents of a mixture can be separated by ordinary physical methods.
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Example of Solids - Crystalline solids and Amorphous solids

Any substances that consists of closely packed particles (atoms, molecules or ions) is called solids. The  solids having characteristic geometrical forms are known as the crystalline solids.  These solids posses a regular and repeated arrangement of particles. 
Example of Solids- Crystalline solids and Amorphous solids
Solids are of two types: Crystalline and amorphous. The main feature of the crystalline solids is their long range order and solids posses short range of order is known as amorphous solids. Amorphous solids are known as glassy solids. (Crystalline vs Amorphous Solids)

Example of Crystalline solids: Rock salt, Calcite and quartz

Example of Amorphous solids: Glass and sugar candy
Any substances that consists of closely packed particles (atoms, molecules or ions) is called solids. The  solids having characteristic geometrical forms are known as the crystalline solids.  These solids posses a regular and repeated arrangement of particles. 
Example of Solids- Crystalline solids and Amorphous solids
Solids are of two types: Crystalline and amorphous. The main feature of the crystalline solids is their long range order and solids posses short range of order is known as amorphous solids. Amorphous solids are known as glassy solids. (Crystalline vs Amorphous Solids)

Example of Crystalline solids: Rock salt, Calcite and quartz

Example of Amorphous solids: Glass and sugar candy
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25 Examples of Proverbs

Proverb represent the general wisdom  of mankind. They are handed down from generation to generation. They deal with basic truths which every body can understand.
Examples of Proverbs
  1. Union is strength.Union is strength -  example of proverb
  2. A rolling stone gathers no moss.
  3. A stitch in time saves nine.
  4. Honesty is the best policy.
  5. Where there is a will. There is a way.
  6. Necessity is the other of invention.
  7. Money is the root of all evil.
  8. The tree is known by its fruit.
  9. East or west, home is the best.
  10. Slow and steady wins the race.
  11. Water water every where not a drops to drink
  12. Pen is mightier than sword.
    Pen is mightier than sword - proverb examples
  13. Rome was not built in a day.
  14. Duty is beauty. The dutiful are beautiful.
  15. A bad workman quarrels with his tools.
  16. Think before you leap.
  17. Prevention is better than cure.
  18. Knowledge is power.
  19. Man proposes, God disposes.
  20. Health is wealth.
  21. In the country of the blind the one eyed man is the king.
  22. Giving is better than borrowing.
  23. As you saw, so you reap
  24. Rain does not stay in the sky25 Examples of Proverbs25. Patience is a virtue for the weak and the strong.
Proverb represent the general wisdom  of mankind. They are handed down from generation to generation. They deal with basic truths which every body can understand.
Examples of Proverbs
  1. Union is strength.Union is strength -  example of proverb
  2. A rolling stone gathers no moss.
  3. A stitch in time saves nine.
  4. Honesty is the best policy.
  5. Where there is a will. There is a way.
  6. Necessity is the other of invention.
  7. Money is the root of all evil.
  8. The tree is known by its fruit.
  9. East or west, home is the best.
  10. Slow and steady wins the race.
  11. Water water every where not a drops to drink
  12. Pen is mightier than sword.
    Pen is mightier than sword - proverb examples
  13. Rome was not built in a day.
  14. Duty is beauty. The dutiful are beautiful.
  15. A bad workman quarrels with his tools.
  16. Think before you leap.
  17. Prevention is better than cure.
  18. Knowledge is power.
  19. Man proposes, God disposes.
  20. Health is wealth.
  21. In the country of the blind the one eyed man is the king.
  22. Giving is better than borrowing.
  23. As you saw, so you reap
  24. Rain does not stay in the sky25 Examples of Proverbs25. Patience is a virtue for the weak and the strong.
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10 Examples of Direct and Indirect speech - Easy English Lessons

10 Example of Direct and Indirect speech - Easy English Lessons
i) John said, ‘I want to become a lawyer.’(Direct Speech)
John said that he wanted to become a lawyer. (Indirect speech)

ii) The girl said, ‘I like sweets.’ (Direct Speech)
The girl said that she liked sweets. (Indirect speech)

iii) She said, ‘ I am buying a new car.’ (Direct Speech)
She said that she was buying a new car. . (Indirect speech)

iv) He said, ‘I have read this story.’ (Direct Speech)
He said that he had read that story. (Indirect speech)

v) She said, ‘I bought a house in London’. (Direct Speech)
She said she had bought a house in London. (Indirect speech)

vi) He Said, ‘Aamir Khan was swimming in the pool’. (Direct Speech)
He said that Aamir Khan had been swimming in the pool. (Indirect speech)

vii) Teacher said to the girls, ‘If you do your best you will surely pass.' (Direct Speech)
The teacher told the girls that if they did their best they would surely pass. (Indirect speech)

viii)She said to me, ‘You alone can save her.’ (Direct Speech)
She told me that I alone could save her. (Indirect speech)

ix) Jerry said, ‘Mother, I am hungry.’ (Direct Speech)
Jerry told his mother that he was hungry. (Indirect speech)

x) He said, ‘There was a big fire here last night.’ (Direct Speech)
He said that there had been a big fire there the previous night. (Indirect speech)
10 Example of Direct and Indirect speech - Easy English Lessons
i) John said, ‘I want to become a lawyer.’(Direct Speech)
John said that he wanted to become a lawyer. (Indirect speech)

ii) The girl said, ‘I like sweets.’ (Direct Speech)
The girl said that she liked sweets. (Indirect speech)

iii) She said, ‘ I am buying a new car.’ (Direct Speech)
She said that she was buying a new car. . (Indirect speech)

iv) He said, ‘I have read this story.’ (Direct Speech)
He said that he had read that story. (Indirect speech)

v) She said, ‘I bought a house in London’. (Direct Speech)
She said she had bought a house in London. (Indirect speech)

vi) He Said, ‘Aamir Khan was swimming in the pool’. (Direct Speech)
He said that Aamir Khan had been swimming in the pool. (Indirect speech)

vii) Teacher said to the girls, ‘If you do your best you will surely pass.' (Direct Speech)
The teacher told the girls that if they did their best they would surely pass. (Indirect speech)

viii)She said to me, ‘You alone can save her.’ (Direct Speech)
She told me that I alone could save her. (Indirect speech)

ix) Jerry said, ‘Mother, I am hungry.’ (Direct Speech)
Jerry told his mother that he was hungry. (Indirect speech)

x) He said, ‘There was a big fire here last night.’ (Direct Speech)
He said that there had been a big fire there the previous night. (Indirect speech)
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10 Examples of Input Devices of Computer

An input device can be defined  as an electromechanical devices that allows the user to feed information  or data into the computer for analysis, storage and give command to the computer.  Input devices accept data and instructions from the user.  Generally input devices are manual or direct data entry devices.
10 Examples of Input Devices of Computer
10 Examples of Input devices:
1. Keyboard
2. Mouse
3. Light Pen
4. Optical/magnetic Scanner
5. Touch Screen
6. Microphone for voice as input
7. Track Ball
8. Joystick
9. Camera
10. Web cam (PC video camera)

1. Keyboard: A keyboard is the most common input device. Generally standard keyboard has 104 keys.

2. Mouse: A mouse is an electro mechanical, hand held device . It is used as a pointer. It can perform functions like selecting menu commands, moving icons, resizing windows, starting programs, and choosing options.

3. Light pen:  An input device that utilizes a light-sensitive detector to select objects on a display screen.

4. Optical scanner: These devices are used for automatic data collection. The devices of this category completely eliminate manual input of data.

5. Touch screen: Touch panel displays and pads are now being offered as alternatives to keyboard.

6. Microphone is an input device, which takes voice as input. The voice communication is more error-prone than information through keyboard.
There are two types of microphones available: Desktop Microphone and Hand held Microphone.

7. Trackball a pointing device, is a mouse lying on its back. To move the pointer, you rotate the ball with your thumb, your fingers, or the palm of your hand. The advantage of trackballs over mouse is that the trackball is stationary so it does not require much space to use it. In addition, you can place a trackball on any type of surface, including your lap.
An input device can be defined  as an electromechanical devices that allows the user to feed information  or data into the computer for analysis, storage and give command to the computer.  Input devices accept data and instructions from the user.  Generally input devices are manual or direct data entry devices.
10 Examples of Input Devices of Computer
10 Examples of Input devices:
1. Keyboard
2. Mouse
3. Light Pen
4. Optical/magnetic Scanner
5. Touch Screen
6. Microphone for voice as input
7. Track Ball
8. Joystick
9. Camera
10. Web cam (PC video camera)

1. Keyboard: A keyboard is the most common input device. Generally standard keyboard has 104 keys.

2. Mouse: A mouse is an electro mechanical, hand held device . It is used as a pointer. It can perform functions like selecting menu commands, moving icons, resizing windows, starting programs, and choosing options.

3. Light pen:  An input device that utilizes a light-sensitive detector to select objects on a display screen.

4. Optical scanner: These devices are used for automatic data collection. The devices of this category completely eliminate manual input of data.

5. Touch screen: Touch panel displays and pads are now being offered as alternatives to keyboard.

6. Microphone is an input device, which takes voice as input. The voice communication is more error-prone than information through keyboard.
There are two types of microphones available: Desktop Microphone and Hand held Microphone.

7. Trackball a pointing device, is a mouse lying on its back. To move the pointer, you rotate the ball with your thumb, your fingers, or the palm of your hand. The advantage of trackballs over mouse is that the trackball is stationary so it does not require much space to use it. In addition, you can place a trackball on any type of surface, including your lap.
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20 Examples of Protozoa (Protista)

Kingdom protista (Gr. Protistas - first of all)  includes unicellular and colonial eukaryotic, auotrophic and heterotrophic organisms. They are broadly divided into three groups: photosynthetic protists (protistan algae), slime moulds  (myxomycetes) and protozoans protists.
General Characters of Kingdom Protista and Classification
Example of Protozoa (Protista)
1. Example of Photosynthetic Protists: Photosythetic protists are photoautotrophic like diatoms, dinoflagellates and euglenoids.
  • Dinoflagellates: Ceratium, Glendinium, Gymnodinium and Gonyaulax.
  • Diatoms:  Navicula,  Nitzchia,  Melosira, Cymbella and Pinnularia.
  • Euglenoids: Euglena, Phacus, Peranema and Eutreptia.
Examples of Protozoa
    2. Example of Slime moulds: Slime moulds exists in two types: cellular and acellular. 
       Physarum and Physarella.
    3. Example of Protozoan Protists
    Amoeba, Entamoeba, Giardia, Plasmodium, Paramecium,  Leishmania   and Trypanosoma.
    Kingdom protista (Gr. Protistas - first of all)  includes unicellular and colonial eukaryotic, auotrophic and heterotrophic organisms. They are broadly divided into three groups: photosynthetic protists (protistan algae), slime moulds  (myxomycetes) and protozoans protists.
    General Characters of Kingdom Protista and Classification
    Example of Protozoa (Protista)
    1. Example of Photosynthetic Protists: Photosythetic protists are photoautotrophic like diatoms, dinoflagellates and euglenoids.
    • Dinoflagellates: Ceratium, Glendinium, Gymnodinium and Gonyaulax.
    • Diatoms:  Navicula,  Nitzchia,  Melosira, Cymbella and Pinnularia.
    • Euglenoids: Euglena, Phacus, Peranema and Eutreptia.
    Examples of Protozoa
      2. Example of Slime moulds: Slime moulds exists in two types: cellular and acellular. 
         Physarum and Physarella.
      3. Example of Protozoan Protists
      Amoeba, Entamoeba, Giardia, Plasmodium, Paramecium,  Leishmania   and Trypanosoma.
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      20 Examples of Fungi - Phycomycetes, Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Deuteromycetes

      Fungi are achlorophyllous, spore bearing, non vascular organisms, which reproduce both sexually and asexually and whose generally filamentous and much branched plant body(mycelium) is surrounded by chitin or fungal cellulose cell wall.
      The term fungus has been derived from the Latin word which means mushroom. They are eukaryotic organisms which feed on dead and decaying organic matter. The branch of biology that deals with the study of fungi is called mycology.
      Example of fungi

      Classification of Fungi with Example

      • Example of Phycomycetes (Lower Fungi or Algal like fungi): Rhizopus,  Saprolegnia, Albugo, Pythium, Mucor.
      • Example of Ascomycetes (Sac fungi) : Yeast, Pencillium, Claviceps, Pleospora, Peziza
      • Example of Basidiomycetes (Club fungi): Mushroom, toadstools, puffballs, stink horns, shelf fungi, racket fungi, rusts and smuts.
      • Example of Deuteromycetes (Fungi imperfecti): Alternaria, Fusarium, Collectrotrichum.
      Classification of Fungi with Example - 20 fungi examples
      Fungi are achlorophyllous, spore bearing, non vascular organisms, which reproduce both sexually and asexually and whose generally filamentous and much branched plant body(mycelium) is surrounded by chitin or fungal cellulose cell wall.
      The term fungus has been derived from the Latin word which means mushroom. They are eukaryotic organisms which feed on dead and decaying organic matter. The branch of biology that deals with the study of fungi is called mycology.
      Example of fungi

      Classification of Fungi with Example

      • Example of Phycomycetes (Lower Fungi or Algal like fungi): Rhizopus,  Saprolegnia, Albugo, Pythium, Mucor.
      • Example of Ascomycetes (Sac fungi) : Yeast, Pencillium, Claviceps, Pleospora, Peziza
      • Example of Basidiomycetes (Club fungi): Mushroom, toadstools, puffballs, stink horns, shelf fungi, racket fungi, rusts and smuts.
      • Example of Deuteromycetes (Fungi imperfecti): Alternaria, Fusarium, Collectrotrichum.
      Classification of Fungi with Example - 20 fungi examples
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      15 Examples of Malvaceae Plants

      A family of about 85 genera and 1000 to 1500 species. The plants are abundantly seen in the tropics and a few are natives of the temperate regions of the old world. Very few of them inhabit cold regions. The family is recognised by Hibiscus rosa sinesis (China rose)
      Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae)
      Example of Malvaceae Plants:
      1. Adansonia digitata
      2. Abutilon indicum
      3.  Abelmoschus esculentus
      4. Althrea rosea
      5. Bombax malabaricum
      6. Ceiba pentandra
      7. Gossypium (Cotton plant)
      8. Hibiscus
      9. Kydia calycina
      10. Malachra capitata
      11. Malvaviscus arborea
      12. Pavonia
      13. Sida
      14. Thespesia popuinea
      15. Urena lobata
      A family of about 85 genera and 1000 to 1500 species. The plants are abundantly seen in the tropics and a few are natives of the temperate regions of the old world. Very few of them inhabit cold regions. The family is recognised by Hibiscus rosa sinesis (China rose)
      Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae)
      Example of Malvaceae Plants:
      1. Adansonia digitata
      2. Abutilon indicum
      3.  Abelmoschus esculentus
      4. Althrea rosea
      5. Bombax malabaricum
      6. Ceiba pentandra
      7. Gossypium (Cotton plant)
      8. Hibiscus
      9. Kydia calycina
      10. Malachra capitata
      11. Malvaviscus arborea
      12. Pavonia
      13. Sida
      14. Thespesia popuinea
      15. Urena lobata
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      Example of Polymers and Monomers

      A polymer is a substance of high molecular mass formed by the combination of very large number of repeating units. These repeating units are called monomers. The reaction by which a monomer is converted to a polymer is called polymerization. Polymers are of two kinds: Natural and synthetic.
      Example of Monomer and Polymer
      Examples of Natural polymers:
      • Starch, cellulose: monomer is glucose
      • Protein: monomer is amino acids
      • Natural rubber: monomer is isoprene
      Examples of Synthetic polymers:
      • Polyethylene: monomer is ethylene
      • Poly vinylchloride (PVC): Monomer is vinyl chloride
      A polymer is a substance of high molecular mass formed by the combination of very large number of repeating units. These repeating units are called monomers. The reaction by which a monomer is converted to a polymer is called polymerization. Polymers are of two kinds: Natural and synthetic.
      Example of Monomer and Polymer
      Examples of Natural polymers:
      • Starch, cellulose: monomer is glucose
      • Protein: monomer is amino acids
      • Natural rubber: monomer is isoprene
      Examples of Synthetic polymers:
      • Polyethylene: monomer is ethylene
      • Poly vinylchloride (PVC): Monomer is vinyl chloride
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      10 Examples of Common Deficiency Symptoms in Plants

      Common Deficiency symptoms in Plants
      Deficiency symptoms in Plants

      1. Abscission: Premature fall of flowers and fruits, leaf fall, leaf curl.


      2. Chlorosis: Non development of chlorophyll. This symptom is caused by the deficiency of elements like Nitrogen, Potassium(K), Magnesium (Mg), Sulphur (S),  iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Zinc (Zn) and Molybdenum (Mo).

      3. Die back: Killing of root apex.


      4. Dwarfing is under development of a plant or plant organs due to inadequate nutrition.

      5. Internal or Heart rot: Softening or rotting of internal tissues, external cracks.

      6. Little leaf disease: Leaves are quite small in size.

      7. Mottling: Patches of green and non green areas.

      8. Necrosis: Death of tissues, stunted growth. It is due to the deficiency of CA, Mg, Cu, K, Lack or low level of N, K, S, mo causes an inhibition of cell division.

      9. White bud: Chlorosis affecting young leaves as well as buds so that the latter are whitish instead of greenish colour.

      10. Wilting: Loss of turgor, internal cork.

      Common Deficiency symptoms in Plants
      Deficiency symptoms in Plants

      1. Abscission: Premature fall of flowers and fruits, leaf fall, leaf curl.


      2. Chlorosis: Non development of chlorophyll. This symptom is caused by the deficiency of elements like Nitrogen, Potassium(K), Magnesium (Mg), Sulphur (S),  iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Zinc (Zn) and Molybdenum (Mo).

      3. Die back: Killing of root apex.


      4. Dwarfing is under development of a plant or plant organs due to inadequate nutrition.

      5. Internal or Heart rot: Softening or rotting of internal tissues, external cracks.

      6. Little leaf disease: Leaves are quite small in size.

      7. Mottling: Patches of green and non green areas.

      8. Necrosis: Death of tissues, stunted growth. It is due to the deficiency of CA, Mg, Cu, K, Lack or low level of N, K, S, mo causes an inhibition of cell division.

      9. White bud: Chlorosis affecting young leaves as well as buds so that the latter are whitish instead of greenish colour.

      10. Wilting: Loss of turgor, internal cork.

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      Examples of Unicellular Organisms

      Unicellular organisms are organisms with a single cell. All characteristics of life like reproduction, locomotion etc is carried out by this single cell. Majority are microscopic.
      Examples of Unicellular Organisms


      1. All bacteria or prokaryotes are unicellularBacteria are prokaryotic organisms without a true nucleus. The genetic material DNA is not surrounded by a membrane as in eukaryotes. Membrane bound cell organelles are also absent.
      Reproduction is primarily by binary fission.
      Eg: Escherichia coli (Intestinal Bacteria), Lactococcus lactis in milk, Streptococcus pyogenes, Halobacteria
           2. All protists: Protists are eukaryotic organisms which are unicellular or unicellular-colonial and which form no tissues. They are diverse group of organisms that are not animals, plants or fungus Eg: Amoeba, Euglena, Paramecium, Plasmodium
           3. Unicellular algae: Algae are chlorophyll bearing thallophytes with autotrophic mode of nutrition. The thallus ranges from a single cell to very elaborate multicellular parenchymatous structure.
      Some examples of unicellular algae are Chlamydomonas, Chlorella etc
           4. Unicellular fungus: Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast)
      Fungi are eukaryotic, non-chlorophyllated thallophytes with heterotrophic mode of nutrition. Majority are multicellular. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) is an example of unicellular fungus.
      Unicellular organisms are organisms with a single cell. All characteristics of life like reproduction, locomotion etc is carried out by this single cell. Majority are microscopic.
      Examples of Unicellular Organisms


      1. All bacteria or prokaryotes are unicellularBacteria are prokaryotic organisms without a true nucleus. The genetic material DNA is not surrounded by a membrane as in eukaryotes. Membrane bound cell organelles are also absent.
      Reproduction is primarily by binary fission.
      Eg: Escherichia coli (Intestinal Bacteria), Lactococcus lactis in milk, Streptococcus pyogenes, Halobacteria
           2. All protists: Protists are eukaryotic organisms which are unicellular or unicellular-colonial and which form no tissues. They are diverse group of organisms that are not animals, plants or fungus Eg: Amoeba, Euglena, Paramecium, Plasmodium
           3. Unicellular algae: Algae are chlorophyll bearing thallophytes with autotrophic mode of nutrition. The thallus ranges from a single cell to very elaborate multicellular parenchymatous structure.
      Some examples of unicellular algae are Chlamydomonas, Chlorella etc
           4. Unicellular fungus: Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast)
      Fungi are eukaryotic, non-chlorophyllated thallophytes with heterotrophic mode of nutrition. Majority are multicellular. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) is an example of unicellular fungus.
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      Example of Respiratory inhibitors

      Respiration is the most important process of all the living beings in which oxygen enters into the cells and oxidizes various food substances (carbohydrates, proteins and fat )The compounds or chemicals, which inhibit respiratory process are called respiratory inhibitors.
      They are
           a) Inhibitors of Electron Transport: They include Rotenone, Piericidin A, Barbiturates, Antimycins, Dimercaprol, Cynides, Azides, Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) And Carbon Monoxide (CO).
      b) Inhibitors of Oxidative Phosphorylation: They include Oligomycin, Rutamycins, Atractylate and Bongkrekate etc.
      RESPIRATORY INHIBITORS examples
      c) Uncouplers of Oxidative Phosphorylation: 2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP), Dicumarol and Chlocarbonyl Cynide Phenylbydrazone (CCCP)
      d) ionophores of Oxidative Phosphorylation: Ionophores promote transport of cations other than H+ through membrane. The important ionophores are valiomycin, Gramicidin A and Nigericin.
      Learn more: Mode of action of inhibitors
      Respiration is the most important process of all the living beings in which oxygen enters into the cells and oxidizes various food substances (carbohydrates, proteins and fat )The compounds or chemicals, which inhibit respiratory process are called respiratory inhibitors.
      They are
           a) Inhibitors of Electron Transport: They include Rotenone, Piericidin A, Barbiturates, Antimycins, Dimercaprol, Cynides, Azides, Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) And Carbon Monoxide (CO).
      b) Inhibitors of Oxidative Phosphorylation: They include Oligomycin, Rutamycins, Atractylate and Bongkrekate etc.
      RESPIRATORY INHIBITORS examples
      c) Uncouplers of Oxidative Phosphorylation: 2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP), Dicumarol and Chlocarbonyl Cynide Phenylbydrazone (CCCP)
      d) ionophores of Oxidative Phosphorylation: Ionophores promote transport of cations other than H+ through membrane. The important ionophores are valiomycin, Gramicidin A and Nigericin.
      Learn more: Mode of action of inhibitors
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      4 Examples of Cell without Nucleus

      Nucleus is undoubtedly the controlling centre or CPU of the cell where the genetic material DNA is residing. All instructions for the working of the cell are encoded in the DNA, the master molecule of the cell.
      Nucleus is the largest organelle in animal cells whereas vacuole occupies much greater space than nucleus in plant cell.

      Cells can be broadly classified into two
      1) Prokaryotic (cells without true nucleus) 2) Eukaryotic (Cells with true nucleus)
      Prokaryotes lack nucleus as the genetic material DNA is not surrounded by nuclear membrane. It is scattered in the cytoplasm.
      Examples of Cells without Nucleus
      1. Prokaryotes (pro: before; Karyo: nucleus)
      • include Eubacteria and Archaebacteria.
      • In all bacteria, DNA is not enclosed within a membrane. The region where DNA is present is called nucleoid region.
      • In Multicellular eukaryotes, like plants and animals, some cells lack nucleus often as an adaptation for its effective functioning.
      2. Mammalian Erythrocytes or Red blood cells or RBC is devoid of nucleus at maturity. 
      • The function of RBC is to deliver oxygen to body tissues by moving through circulatory system. The RBC is devoid of nucleus and other organelles like mitochondrion. Cytoplasm of RBC is rich in hemoglobin, the oxygen carrier molecule.
      • RBCs must move through small capillaries and presence of nucleus and other organelles may interfere with this swift movement.
      • Absence of nucleus and other organelles in RBC is an adaptation to carry more oxygen.
      3. Platelets or thrombocytes in mammals involved in blood clotting
      • Platelets are fragments of cytoplasm formed from magakaryocytes or large bone marrow cells in the bone marrow. Its function is normal blood clotting.
      4. Sieve tube elements in phloem of plants (Angiosperms) involved in transport of carbohydrate like sucrose from leaves
      • Seive tube elements lack nucleus at maturity. Each sieve tube element is associated with one or more nucleated companion cells which actually regulates the movement of sugar through sieve tube elements.
      • Both sieve tube element and companion cell is derived from same mother cell and is connected by fine cytoplasmic strands called plsmodesmata. Sieve tube element depends on companion cells for protein, ATP and other signaling molecules.
      Nucleus is undoubtedly the controlling centre or CPU of the cell where the genetic material DNA is residing. All instructions for the working of the cell are encoded in the DNA, the master molecule of the cell.
      Nucleus is the largest organelle in animal cells whereas vacuole occupies much greater space than nucleus in plant cell.

      Cells can be broadly classified into two
      1) Prokaryotic (cells without true nucleus) 2) Eukaryotic (Cells with true nucleus)
      Prokaryotes lack nucleus as the genetic material DNA is not surrounded by nuclear membrane. It is scattered in the cytoplasm.
      Examples of Cells without Nucleus
      1. Prokaryotes (pro: before; Karyo: nucleus)
      • include Eubacteria and Archaebacteria.
      • In all bacteria, DNA is not enclosed within a membrane. The region where DNA is present is called nucleoid region.
      • In Multicellular eukaryotes, like plants and animals, some cells lack nucleus often as an adaptation for its effective functioning.
      2. Mammalian Erythrocytes or Red blood cells or RBC is devoid of nucleus at maturity. 
      • The function of RBC is to deliver oxygen to body tissues by moving through circulatory system. The RBC is devoid of nucleus and other organelles like mitochondrion. Cytoplasm of RBC is rich in hemoglobin, the oxygen carrier molecule.
      • RBCs must move through small capillaries and presence of nucleus and other organelles may interfere with this swift movement.
      • Absence of nucleus and other organelles in RBC is an adaptation to carry more oxygen.
      3. Platelets or thrombocytes in mammals involved in blood clotting
      • Platelets are fragments of cytoplasm formed from magakaryocytes or large bone marrow cells in the bone marrow. Its function is normal blood clotting.
      4. Sieve tube elements in phloem of plants (Angiosperms) involved in transport of carbohydrate like sucrose from leaves
      • Seive tube elements lack nucleus at maturity. Each sieve tube element is associated with one or more nucleated companion cells which actually regulates the movement of sugar through sieve tube elements.
      • Both sieve tube element and companion cell is derived from same mother cell and is connected by fine cytoplasmic strands called plsmodesmata. Sieve tube element depends on companion cells for protein, ATP and other signaling molecules.
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      Examples of Secondary Metabolites in Plants

      Secondary metabolites are defined as the cell constituents, which are not essential for survival. They act as defence chemicals .They includes alkaloids, essential oil, glycosides (steroids and phenolics), terpenoids, latex, tannins etc. Invitro culture (Suspension culture) of some plant species produce some specific metabolites in large amounts than the intact cells do. They are immense use in medicine especially various alkaloids.
       For example: Shikonine is a dye produced by the cells Lithospermum eryrorhizon.Vincristine is used as anticancer agent produced by Vinca rosea. Digoxin controls cardiovascular disorders and Pyrithrin used as insecticide.

      secondary metabolites

                                                   Plant species and Secondary metabolites
      Product
      Plant sp (Source)
      Uses
      Artemisin
      Artemisisa sp
      Antimalarial
      Atropin , Hyoscyamine
      Atropa belladona

      Azadirachtin
      Azadiracta indica (Neem)
      insecticidal
      Anthraquinone
      Cassia tora
      Useful in agriculture and food industries
      Berberine
      Coptis japonica
      Antibacterial
      Anti inflammatory
      Capsaicin
      Capsicum annum
      Cures rheumatic pain
      Codeine
      Papaver sp
      Analgesic
      Camptothecine
      Campatotheca accuminata
      Anticancer
      Cephalotaxine,
      Harringtonia
      Cephalotaxus harringtonia
      Antitumour and antileukaemic substances
      Diosgenia
      Dioscorea deltoidea
      Useful in chemical industry
      Ephedrine
      Ephedra foliate
      Useful in Pharmacy
      Rescerpine, Rescinnamine
      Ravwolfia serpentine
      Useful in Pharmacy
      Secondary metabolites are defined as the cell constituents, which are not essential for survival. They act as defence chemicals .They includes alkaloids, essential oil, glycosides (steroids and phenolics), terpenoids, latex, tannins etc. Invitro culture (Suspension culture) of some plant species produce some specific metabolites in large amounts than the intact cells do. They are immense use in medicine especially various alkaloids.
       For example: Shikonine is a dye produced by the cells Lithospermum eryrorhizon.Vincristine is used as anticancer agent produced by Vinca rosea. Digoxin controls cardiovascular disorders and Pyrithrin used as insecticide.

      secondary metabolites

                                                   Plant species and Secondary metabolites
      Product
      Plant sp (Source)
      Uses
      Artemisin
      Artemisisa sp
      Antimalarial
      Atropin , Hyoscyamine
      Atropa belladona

      Azadirachtin
      Azadiracta indica (Neem)
      insecticidal
      Anthraquinone
      Cassia tora
      Useful in agriculture and food industries
      Berberine
      Coptis japonica
      Antibacterial
      Anti inflammatory
      Capsaicin
      Capsicum annum
      Cures rheumatic pain
      Codeine
      Papaver sp
      Analgesic
      Camptothecine
      Campatotheca accuminata
      Anticancer
      Cephalotaxine,
      Harringtonia
      Cephalotaxus harringtonia
      Antitumour and antileukaemic substances
      Diosgenia
      Dioscorea deltoidea
      Useful in chemical industry
      Ephedrine
      Ephedra foliate
      Useful in Pharmacy
      Rescerpine, Rescinnamine
      Ravwolfia serpentine
      Useful in Pharmacy
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      Example of Ammonotelic, Ureotelic, Uricotelic animals

      Accordingly the nitrogenous excretion is grouped into following three categories. Ammonia, Urea and uric acid are the main nitrogenous waste product in different animals.
      a) Example of Ammonotelic animals :

      Protozoans (Amoeba, Paramecium), Sponges, Cnidarians, Liver fluke, Tapeworm, Nereis, Leech, Earthworm. Prawn, Pila, Bony fishes, Salamanders, Amphibian tadpoles and crocodiles.
      b) Example of Ureotelic animals:
      Ascaris, Earthworm, cartilaginous fishes (Rays and Sharks), frogs, toads, turtles, alligators, mammals (Humans).

      c)Example of Uricotelic animals:
      Most insects(Cockroach), most land crustaceans, land snails (Helix), land reptiles(snakes and lizards),  and birds.
      *Ascaris, Earthworm (Both are Ammonotelic and Ureotelic)
      Accordingly the nitrogenous excretion is grouped into following three categories. Ammonia, Urea and uric acid are the main nitrogenous waste product in different animals.
      a) Example of Ammonotelic animals :

      Protozoans (Amoeba, Paramecium), Sponges, Cnidarians, Liver fluke, Tapeworm, Nereis, Leech, Earthworm. Prawn, Pila, Bony fishes, Salamanders, Amphibian tadpoles and crocodiles.
      b) Example of Ureotelic animals:
      Ascaris, Earthworm, cartilaginous fishes (Rays and Sharks), frogs, toads, turtles, alligators, mammals (Humans).

      c)Example of Uricotelic animals:
      Most insects(Cockroach), most land crustaceans, land snails (Helix), land reptiles(snakes and lizards),  and birds.
      *Ascaris, Earthworm (Both are Ammonotelic and Ureotelic)
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