Examples of Secondary Metabolites in Plants

Secondary metabolites are defined as the cell constituents, which are not essential for survival. They act as defence chemicals .They includes alkaloids, essential oil, glycosides (steroids and phenolics), terpenoids, latex, tannins etc. Invitro culture (Suspension culture) of some plant species produce some specific metabolites in large amounts than the intact cells do. They are immense use in medicine especially various alkaloids.
 For example: Shikonine is a dye produced by the cells Lithospermum eryrorhizon.Vincristine is used as anticancer agent produced by Vinca rosea. Digoxin controls cardiovascular disorders and Pyrithrin used as insecticide.

secondary metabolites

                                             Plant species and Secondary metabolites
Product
Plant sp (Source)
Uses
Artemisin
Artemisisa sp
Antimalarial
Atropin , Hyoscyamine
Atropa belladona

Azadirachtin
Azadiracta indica (Neem)
insecticidal
Anthraquinone
Cassia tora
Useful in agriculture and food industries
Berberine
Coptis japonica
Antibacterial
Anti inflammatory
Capsaicin
Capsicum annum
Cures rheumatic pain
Codeine
Papaver sp
Analgesic
Camptothecine
Campatotheca accuminata
Anticancer
Cephalotaxine,
Harringtonia
Cephalotaxus harringtonia
Antitumour and antileukaemic substances
Diosgenia
Dioscorea deltoidea
Useful in chemical industry
Ephedrine
Ephedra foliate
Useful in Pharmacy
Rescerpine, Rescinnamine
Ravwolfia serpentine
Useful in Pharmacy
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